*treespace* implements new methods for the exploration and analysis of distributions of phylogenetic trees for a given set of taxa.

To install the development version from github:

The stable version can be installed from CRAN using:

Then, to load the package, use:

The main functions implemented in *treespace* are:

: explore landscapes of phylogenetic trees`treespace`

: open up an application in a web browser for an interactive exploration of the diversity in a set of trees`treespaceServer`

: identify clusters of similar trees`findGroves`

: scatterplot of groups of trees, and`plotGroves`

which enables interactive plotting based on d3.js`plotGrovesD3`

: find geometric median tree(s) to summarise a group of trees`medTree`

Other functions are central to the computations of distances between trees:

: characterise a tree by a vector`treeVec`

: find the distance between two tree vectors`treeDist`

: find the pairwise distances of a list of trees`multiDist`

: find the distances of a list of trees from a reference tree`refTreeDist`

: for a pair of trees, list the tips with differing ancestry`tipDiff`

: plot a pair of trees, highlighting the tips with differing ancestry`plotTreeDiff`

Distributed datasets include:

: illustrative set of 201 trees built using the neighbour-joining and bootstrapping example from the woodmice dataset in the ape documentation.`woodmiceTrees`

: 500 trees sampled from a BEAST posterior set of trees from (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007)`DengueTrees`

: 17 dengue virus serotype 4 sequences from (Lanciotti`DengueSeqs`

*et al*., 1997), from which the`DengueTrees`

were inferred.: the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree from the`DengueBEASTMCC`

`DengueTrees`

.

We first load *treespace*, and the packages required for graphics:

The function `treespace`

defines typologies of phylogenetic trees using a two-step approach:

perform pairwise comparisons of trees using various (Euclidean) metrics; by default, the comparison uses the Kendall and Colijn metric (Kendall and Colijn, 2016) which is described in more detail below; other metrics rely on tip distances implemented in

*adephylo*(Jombart*et al.*, 2010) and*phangorn*(Schliep 2011).use Metric Multidimensional Scaling (MDS, aka Principal Coordinates Analysis, PCoA) to summarise pairwise distances between the trees as well as possible into a few dimensions; the output of the MDS is typically visualised using scatterplots of the first few Principal Components (PCs); this step relies on the PCoA implemented in

*ade4*(Dray and Dufour, 2007).

The function `treespace`

performs both tasks, returning both the matrix of pairwise tree comparisons (`$D`

), and the PCoA (`$pco`

). This can be illustrated using randomly generated trees:

```
# generate list of trees
suppressWarnings(RNGversion("3.5.0"))
set.seed(1)
x <- rmtree(10, 20)
names(x) <- paste("tree", 1:10, sep = "")
# use treespace
res <- treespace(x, nf=3)
names(res)
```

`## [1] "D" "pco"`

```
## $D
## tree1 tree2 tree3 tree4 tree5 tree6 tree7 tree8 tree9
## tree2 26.00
## tree3 31.06 26.74
## tree4 42.85 42.12 44.44
## tree5 30.66 27.71 27.37 44.79
## tree6 36.50 31.18 30.18 41.81 31.59
## tree7 34.64 28.71 29.48 40.35 31.11 32.37
## tree8 28.97 26.29 24.45 43.74 23.47 30.41 29.00
## tree9 29.63 27.42 27.48 45.61 26.31 30.89 29.77 24.60
## tree10 34.87 30.00 29.44 44.97 34.06 31.05 34.41 31.54 32.59
##
## $pco
## Duality diagramm
## class: pco dudi
## $call: dudi.pco(d = D, scannf = is.null(nf), nf = nf)
##
## $nf: 3 axis-components saved
## $rank: 9
## eigen values: 142.1 76.52 62.69 49.88 41.07 ...
## vector length mode content
## 1 $cw 9 numeric column weights
## 2 $lw 10 numeric row weights
## 3 $eig 9 numeric eigen values
##
## data.frame nrow ncol content
## 1 $tab 10 9 modified array
## 2 $li 10 3 row coordinates
## 3 $l1 10 3 row normed scores
## 4 $co 9 3 column coordinates
## 5 $c1 9 3 column normed scores
## other elements: NULL
```

Pairwise tree distances can be visualised using *adegraphics*:

```
# table.value with some customization
table.value(res$D, nclass=5, method="color",
symbol="circle", col=redpal(5))
```

The best representation of these distances in a 2-dimensional space is given by the first 2 PCs of the MDS. These can be visualised using any scatter plotting tool; here we use the *treespace* function `plotGroves`

, based on the *adegraphics* function `scatter`

:

Alternatively, `plotGrovesD3`

creates interactive plots based on d3.js:

The functionality of `treespace`

can be further illustrated using *ape*â€™s dataset *woodmouse*, from which we built the 201 trees supplied in `woodmiceTrees`

using the neighbour-joining and bootstrapping example from the *ape* documentation.

```
data(woodmiceTrees)
wm.res <- treespace(woodmiceTrees,nf=3)
# PCs are stored in:
head(wm.res$pco$li)
```

```
## A1 A2 A3
## 1 -0.9949 -1.363 -0.7918
## 2 -0.6137 -1.014 -0.6798
## 3 2.6667 4.219 -2.9293
## 4 -13.6081 1.854 1.0947
## 5 2.1980 4.176 -3.1960
## 6 3.6013 4.865 2.9853
```

Packages such as *adegraphics* and *ggplot2* can be used to make alternative plots, for example visualising the density of points within the space.

The *treespace* function `multiDist`

simply performs the pairwise comparison of trees and outputs a distance matrix. This function may be preferable for large datasets, and when principal co-ordinate analysis is not required. It includes an option to save memory at the expense of computation time.

Once a typology of trees has been derived using the approach described above, one may want to formally identify clusters of similar trees. One simple approach is:

select a few first PCs of the MDS (retaining signal but getting rid of random noise)

derive pairwise Euclidean distances between trees based on these PCs

use hierarchical clustering to obtain a dendrogram of these trees

cut the dendrogram to obtain clusters

In *treespace*, the function `findGroves`

implements this approach, offering various clustering options (see `?findGroves`

). Here we supply the function with our `treespace`

output `wm.res`

since we have already calculated it, but it is also possible to skip the steps above and directly supply `findGroves`

with a multiPhylo list of trees.

`## [1] "groups" "treespace"`

Note that when the number of clusters (`nclust`

) is not provided, the function will display a dendrogram and ask for a cut-off height.

The results can be plotted directly using `plotGrovesD3`

(see `?plotGrovesD3`

for options):

```
# alternative with improved legend and tooltip text, giving the tree numbers:
plotGrovesD3(wm.groves, tooltip_text=paste0("Tree ",1:201), legend_width=50, col_lab="Cluster")
```

```
# plot axes 2 and 3. This helps to show why, for example, clusters 2 and 4 have been identified as separate, despite them appearing to overlap when viewing axes 1 and 2.
plotGrovesD3(wm.groves, xax=2, yax=3, tooltip_text=paste0("Tree ",1:201), legend_width=50, col_lab="Cluster")
```

We can also plot in 3D:

```
# prepare a colour palette:
colours <- fac2col(wm.groves$groups, col.pal=funky)
plot3d(wm.groves$treespace$pco$li[,1],
wm.groves$treespace$pco$li[,2],
wm.groves$treespace$pco$li[,3],
col=colours, type="s", size=1.5,
xlab="", ylab="", zlab="")
```

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`treespaceServer`

: a web application for The functionalities of `treespace`

are also available via a user-friendly web interface, running locally on the default web browser. It can be started by simply typing `treespaceServer()`

. The interface allows you to import trees and run `treespace`

to view and explore the tree space in 2 or 3 dimensions. It is then straightforward to analyse the tree space by varying \(\lambda\), looking for clusters using `findGroves`

and saving results in various formats. Individual trees can be easily viewed, including median trees per cluster (see below). Pairs of trees can be viewed together with their tip-differences highlighted using the function `plotTreeDiff`

, and collections of trees can be seen together using `densiTree`

from the package *phangorn*. It is fully documented in the *help* tab.